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Through project-based learning, students will develop and manufacture a unique and nutritious food product that includes ingredients that have been sourced locally and can be served in retail outlets or the school cafeteria.
Milestone 1: Entry Event
Milestone 2: Planning and Design
Milestone 3: Development and Prototype
Milestone 4: Production and Final Product Presentation
carbon footprint: a measure of the amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by a single endeavor or by a company, household, or individual through day-to-day activities over a given period
comparative advantage: an economic theory about the potential gains from trade for individuals, firms, or nations that arise from differences in their endowed resources (e.g., climate, geography, and/or technological progress). In an economic model, an agent has a comparative advantage over another in producing a particular good if they can produce that good at a lower relative opportunity cost as a result of their endowed resources.
economy: a way to make a living; how people produce, sell, and buy whole goods and services
food miles: the distance food has traveled from where it is grown to where it is eaten
fossil fuel: a natural fuel such as coal or gas, formed in the geological past from the remains of living organisms
local food: the direct or intermediated marketing of food to consumers that is produced and distributed in a limited geographic area
locavore: a person whose diet consists only or principally of locally grown or produced food
Culinary Concepts is a Project-Based Learning (PBL) plan. PBL is a teaching method in which students gain knowledge and skills by working for an extended period of time to investigate and respond to an authentic, engaging, and complex question, problem, or challenge.1 A quality PBL experience requires seven essential elements.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) defines local food as the direct or intermediated marketing of food to consumers that is produced and distributed in a limited geographic area.3 Local food is commonly considered to be food grown within 100 miles of its point of sale or consumption. A locavore is a person whose diet consists only or principally of locally grown or produced food. Buying food from local farms and businesses is good for communities, the economy, and the environment. Purchasing locally grown food lowers the consumer's carbon footprint, ensures freshness, and benefits the local economy.
Most food in the United States is shipped an average of 1,500 miles before being sold.4 While comparative advantage needs to be considered, these distances substantially increase when considering food imported from other countries. Reducing food miles lessens the environmental impact of food by cutting back on air pollution and fossil fuel consumption.
Typically, produce in the US is picked 4-7 days before being placed on supermarket shelves. Locally sold produce can be harvested at its peak ripeness and reaches the consumer faster and at a fresher stage. In addition, because local produce is fresh, there is less waste. When produce is shipped long distances, the amount of food lost to spoilage increases.
When consumers buy local, more of their money stays in their community. The choice to buy local food affects not only the farmer that grows the food, but also the trucking company that ships the products, the store that sells the product, and the state and city governments that operate on taxes from the businesses that are supported by the manufacturing of the products. Every dollar spent to purchase locally produced products adds four times more to the local economy than a dollar spent at a national chain retailer.5
Local foods can be found at farmers' markets, restaurants, community supported agricultural programs (CSAs), food co-ops, food hubs, food stores, and online. Due to consumer demand, more and more grocery stores and restaurants are highlighting locally grown food. Below is a list of state programs that promote local foods:
In this project-based learning activity, students will develop a unique retail food product that includes ingredients (51%) that have been sourced locally to create a new company. Student teams will need to design a product that could be created with locally-grown products. The resulting food product could be sold in retail outlets and/or be served in school cafeterias. Students will work through the problem to select a product they think will be successful (based on the demand, sales, profit) and will need to work with the following ingredients: wheat/flour, honey, eggs, milk, butter, cheese, and seasonings (this list can be customized to the school's specific location). Several possible recipes with the ingredients noted above can be found on this Pinterest Board.
At the beginning of the project, students are introduced to key content using a compelling situation that provides context and serves as a catalyst for an authentic problem or challenge. In Project-Based Learning (PBL), this authentic problem/challenge is referred to as an "Entry Event." Students use the Entry Event to initiate inquiry by reflecting on their prior knowledge of the key content, generating questions that they need to know the answers to in order to successfully complete the project or process that will solve the problem, and identifying what their next steps might be to answer their questions. These questions are used in an ongoing way throughout the project to track learning and guide inquiry.6 While students may have several questions, one driving question needs to be agreed upon that, when answered, should address the initial solution. Refer to Milestone 1 for Entry Event procedures.
In PBL, projects are organized into milestones. Each milestone represents a significant stage of the project. Click on each milestone below to access instructional procedures.
Milestone 1: Entry Event (approximately 2 days)
Milestone 2: Planning and Design (approximately 1 day)
Milestone 3: Development and Prototype (approximately 3 days)
Milestone 4: Production and Final Product Presentation (approximately 3 days)
State-specific Content Bridge: Home Grown Foods
If you live in the following states, find more lesson plans and resources about home grown foods in your state:
As a final wrap-up, review and summarize the following key points:
We welcome your feedback! Please take a minute to tell us how to make this lesson better or to give us a few gold stars!
National Center for Agricultural Literacy