Agricultural Literacy Curriculum Matrix
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A Rafter of Turkeys
3 - 5
2-3 one-hour class periods
Students will learn about the domestication and life cycle of the turkey, recognize how turkeys are raised on farms, and identify turkey products.
Interest Approach — Engagement:
- Chart paper or whiteboard
- Poultry Ag Mag
Activity 1: History of the Turkey
- KWL Chart (created in the Interest Approach – Engagement)
- Turkey Reading Passages, one passage per group
- What is a Lap Book video
- Turkey Images, one set per student
- Colored folder, one per student
- Crayons, colored pencils, tape, glue, and scissors
Activity 2: Life Cycle of the Turkey
- Cackle Hatchery Website
- KWL Chart
- Turkey Life Cycle Cards
- Colored folder, one per student (used in Activity 1)
- Crayons, colored pencils, tape, glue, and scissors
Activity 3: Turkey Products
- All About Turkeys Information Sheet
- KWL Chart
Essential Files (maps, charts, pictures, or documents)
wild: living in a state of nature and not under human control and care
selective breeding: the process of breeding plants and animals for particular genetic traits
producer: a person who grows agricultural products or manufactures articles
predator: an animal that lives by killing and eating other animals
pigment: a natural coloring matter in animals and plants
heritage: something acquired from the past
genetics: a branch of biology that deals with the inherited traits and variation of organisms
extinct: no longer existing
domesticated: living with or under the care of human beings
diverse: differing from one another
consumer: a person who buys and uses up goods
conservation: the act of keeping in a safe or sound state
commercial: designed mainly for profit
breed: a group of animals or plants usually found only under human care and different from related kinds
Did you know? (Ag Facts)
- A group of turkeys is called a rafter.
- The red fleshy appendage that hangs from a turkey’s neck is called a snood.
- The male turkey is known as a tom. The female is called a hen.
- Only tom turkeys gobble. Hens make a clucking sound.
- The dark of dark meat comes from a chemical compound called myoglobin, which plays a key role in oxygen transport. Dark meat is found in muscles that are used frequently, such as the legs.
Background Agricultural Connections
Interest Approach – Engagement
- Ask the students if there is a difference between wild and domesticated animals. Ask them to give you examples of domestic animals and their wild counterparts such as pigs and wild boars, or domesticated white turkeys and turkeys that live in the wild. Create a KWL chart on chart paper or whiteboard. This should be displayed in the classroom for use throughout the lesson. Ask the students the following questions and place their answers in the first two columns. The third column will be filled in at the conclusion of Activity 3.
- What I Know
- What do you know about the difference between wild and domesticated animals?
- Have you ever seen a wild turkey? Have you ever seen a domesticated turkey?
- What physical differences did you notice between a wild and domesticated turkey?
- What do you know about any other differences between a wild and domesticated turkey?
- What holiday is associated with turkeys?
- What I Want to Know
- What do you want to learn about turkeys?
- Why are turkeys important to people?
- What differences do you want to learn about wild and domesticated turkeys?
- How are turkeys raised on a farm?
- What I Know
- Access the Poultry Ag Mag and project it onto a large screen. Have students take turns reading the section titled "Turkey Talk" found on page three. Make sure to point out the picture at the bottom of the white domesticated turkeys and ask the students if they look different than turkeys seen in the wild. Refer back to the KWL chart and add any additional information that the students learned from the reading.
Activity 1: History of the Turkey
- Place the students into four small groups. Give each group a copy of one of the Turkey Reading Passages.
- Each reading passage includes a set of questions. Have each group answer their questions after doing a shared reading of the assigned passage.
- Once they have read the texts and found their assigned information, have the student groups report the information found in their readings to their classmates.
- Groups will then use the information to create a lap book about turkeys with a colored folder. Refer to the What is a Lap Book video for directions on creating a lap book. Tell the students that they will be adding pictures to the lap book from the next two activities. The Turkey Images can be used in the lap book. You may also add your own.
- Have each group present their lap books to their classmates.
- For more sharing, rotate the lap books from group to group allowing each group time to read the information recorded in each book.
- Ask each group to report one thing they learned from reading their classmates' lap books. These statements can be added to the third column of the KWL Chart.
Activity 2: Life Cycle of the Turkey
- Discuss with the students the concept that turkeys have a life cycle much like a chicken. Turkeys and chickens are both classified as poultry.
- Use the Cackle Hatchery website to show students pictures and videos of the White Breasted Turkey (described on the website as the Broad Breasted White Turkey), which are the types of turkeys raised by farmers to be sold in the supermarkets. The pictures and videos show both the poults (young turkey) and adults. The website also includes pictures and videos of the Heritage Turkey that can be shown for comparison.
- Place the students in the same groups from Activity 1 and have them add the Turkey Life Cycle Cards to their lap books.
- From the beginning to the end of the turkey life cycle, the students should place the cards in the following order:
- Once each group has completed this section of their lap book lead a discussion about the life cycle of a turkey. Integrate the following points into the discussion:
- During the growing stage, turkeys live together in houses and grow to become adults.
- To keep turkeys from hurting each other, poults are vaccinated and have their claws trimmed and top nook cut off.
- Hens are raised on a breeder farm.
- Turkey eggs hatch at the hatchery.
- It take approximately 28 days for a turkey egg to hatch.
- Refer back to the KWL Chart and ask students to add more information to the last column.
Activity 3: Turkey Products
- Provide each student with an All About Turkeys Information Sheet. Have the students to read the sheet independently or aloud as a class.
- Ask the students, "What food products contain turkey?" (sandwich meat, soups, turkey burgers, and turkey bacon)
- Remind students that the White Breasted Turkey breed was the result of selective breeding with more white breast meat and meatier thighs and legs containing a darker colored meat.
- Conduct a student survey to find out how many students prefer white turkey meat to dark turkey meat. Conduct a second survey to determine which turkey product students most prefer to eat. Graph the results in two circle graphs and have the students include the graphs in their lap books.
- Refer the students back to the KWL Chart and add any remaining new information that they learned.
Concept Elaboration and Evaluation
After conducting these activities, review and summarize the following key concepts:
- Wild and domestic turkeys look significantly different from one another.
- The knowledge of genetics and inherited traits have allowed turkey breeders to produce a turkey that is efficient to raise and nutritious to eat.
- In addition to traditional turkey meat, there are also turkey burgers, turkey bacon, and sandwich meat.
We welcome your feedback! Please take a minute to tell us how to make this lesson better or to give us a few gold stars!
Have the students conduct a school wide student survey to determine which kind of turkey meat is preferred, white or dark meat. The students can survey the faculty and staff in the same manner and compare the percentages to the student survey. Have the students determine the appropriate graph to display the data.
Visit the Interactive Map Project website and view the map for turkey production in the United States. Identify the states which raise the most turkeys and discover if your state raises a significant amount of turkeys and how many.
Have the students draw a picture of a turkey using the following polygons (at minimum): 10 triangles, 10 quadrilaterals, 5 irregular pentagons, 2 regular pentagons, 3 hexagons, and 1 regular octagon. Students may use more polygons, but must include all of the above.
Have the students solve the following math problems:
- White Breasted Tom turkeys grow to a marketable weight of 20 pounds (9 kg) in four months. Heritage birds grow to a marketable weight of 18 pounds (8 kg) in seven months. If you have a flock of 20 turkeys for each breed, how many turkeys can each group grow in a year?
- The average American ate 16 pounds (7 kg) of turkey. Determine how much turkey the entire class would have eaten, if each student ate that amount. Have students calculate the average amount of turkey eaten by their family in a year.
- If you cook a 20-pound (9 kg) turkey for Thanksgiving dinner and each person eats 1.5 pounds (.68 kg) of turkey, how many people can you invite to dinner?
Suggested Companion Resources
- Farm Pop-Ups (Activity)
- Eating the Plates (Book)
- Time for Cranberries (Book)
- Interactive Map Project (Poster, Map, Infographic)
- Cranberry Bounce (Multimedia)
- Poultry Reader (Booklets & Readers)
- Thanksgiving Maps and Posters (Website)
State Standards for Utah
Grade 4: SEEd Strand 4.1Through the study of organisms, inferences can be made about environments both past and present. Plants and animals have both internal and external structures that serve various functions for growth, survival, behavior, and reproduction. Animals use different sense receptors specialized for particular kinds of information to understand and respond to their environment. Some kinds of plants and animals that once lived on Earth can no longer be found. However, fossils from these organisms provide evidence about the types of organisms that lived long ago and the nature of their environments. Additionally, the presence and location of certain fossil types indicate changes that have occurred in environments over time.
Standard 4.1.1Construct an explanation from evidence that plants and animals have internal and external structures that function to support survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction. Emphasize how structures support an organism’s survival in its environment and how internal and external structures of plants and animals vary within the same and across multiple Utah environments. Examples of structures could include thorns on a stem to prevent predation or gills on a fish to allow it to breathe underwater. (LS1.A)
Standard 4.1.2Develop and use a model of a system to describe how animals receive different types of information from their environment through their senses, process the information in their brain, and respond to the information. Emphasize how animals are able to use their perceptions and memories to guide their actions. Examples could include models that explain how animals sense and then respond to different aspects of their environment such as sounds, temperature, or smell. (LS1.D)
Grade 3: SEEd Strand 3.2Organisms (plants and animals, including humans) have unique and diverse life cycles, but they all follow a pattern of birth, growth, reproduction, and death. Different organisms vary in how they look and function because they have different inherited traits. An organism’s traits are inherited from its parents and can be influenced by the environment. Variations in traits between individuals in a population may provide advantages in surviving and reproducing in particular environments. When the environment changes, some organisms have traits that allow them to survive, some move to new locations, and some do not survive. Humans can design solutions to reduce the impact of environmental changes on organisms.
Standard 3.2.1Develop and use models to describe changes that organisms go through during their life cycles. Emphasize that organisms have unique and diverse life cycles but follow a pattern of birth, growth, reproduction, and death. Examples of changes in life cycles could include how some plants and animals look different at different stages of life or how other plants and animals only appear to change size in their life. (LS1.B)
Standard 3.2.2Analyze and interpret data to identify patterns of traits that plants and animals have inherited from parents. Emphasize the similarities and differences in traits between parent organisms and offspring and variation of traits in groups of similar organisms. (LS3.A, LS3.B)
Grade 5: Science Standard 5Students will understand that traits are passed from the parent organisms to their offspring, and that sometimes the offspring may possess variations of these traits that may help or hinder survival in a given environment.
Objective 2Describe how some characteristics could give a species a survival advantage in a particular environment. Meeting one or more of the following indicators: a) Compare the traits of similar species for physical abilities, instinctual behaviors, and specialized body structures that increase the survival of one species in a specific environment over another species (e.g., difference between the feet of snowshoe hare and cottontail rabbit, differences in leaves of plants growing at different altitudes, differences between the feathers of an owl and a hummingbird, differences in parental behavior among various fish). b) Identify that some environments give one species a survival advantage over another (e.g., warm water favors fish such as carp, cold water favors fish such as trout, environments that burn regularly favor grasses, environments that do not often burn favor trees). c) Describe how a particular physical attribute may provide an advantage for survival in one environment but not in another (e.g., heavy fur in arctic climates keep animals warm whereas in hot desert climates it would cause overheating; flippers on such animals as sea lions and seals provide excellent swimming structures in the water but become clumsy and awkward on land; cacti retain the right amount of water in arid regions but would develop root rot in a more temperate region; fish gills have the ability to absorb oxygen in water but not on land). d) Research a specific plant or animal and report how specific physical attributes provide an advantage for survival in a specific environment.
Agricultural Literacy Outcomes
Culture, Society, Economy & Geography
- Provide examples of agricultural products available, but not produced in their local area and state (T5.3-5.e)
Science, Technology, Engineering & Math
- Identify examples of how the knowledge of inherited traits is applied to farmed plants and animals in order to meet specific objectives (i.e., increased yields, better nutrition, etc.) (T4.3-5.c)
Common Core Connections
Reading: Anchor Standards
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.1Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.10Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.4Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.5Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.
Speaking and Listening: Anchor Standards
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.4Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.5Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding of presentations.
Language: Anchor Standards
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.L.3Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.L.4Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.L.5Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
Writing: Anchor Standards
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.W.3Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details and well-structured event sequences.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.W.4Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
Mathematics: Practice Standards
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP1Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. Students start by explaining to themselves the meaning of a problem and looking for entry points to its solution. They analyze givens, constraints, relationships, and goals. They make conjectures about the form and meaning of the solution and plan a solution pathway rather than simply jumping into a solution attempt. They consider analogous problems, and try special cases and simpler forms of the original problem in order to gain insight into its solution. They monitor and evaluate their progress and change course if necessary. Students check their answers to problems using a different method, and they continually ask themselves, “Does this make sense?” They can understand the approaches of others to solving complex problems and identify correspondences between different approaches.
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. Students make sense of quantities and their relationships in problem situations. They bring two complementary abilities to bear on problems involving quantitative relationships: the ability to decontextualize—to abstract a given situation and represent it symbolically and manipulate the representing symbols as if they have a life of their own, without necessarily attending to their referents—and the ability to contextualize, to pause as needed during the manipulation process in order to probe into the referents for the symbols involved. Quantitative reasoning entails habits of creating a coherent representation of the problem at hand; considering the units involved; attending to the meaning of quantities, not just how to compute them; and knowing and flexibly using different properties of operations and objects.
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP3Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. Students understand and use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results in constructing arguments. They make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of their conjectures. They are able to analyze situations by breaking them into cases, and can recognize and use counterexamples. They justify their conclusions, communicate them to others, and respond to the arguments of others. They reason inductively about data, making plausible arguments that take into account the context from which the data arose. Students are also able to compare the effectiveness of two plausible arguments, distinguish correct logic or reasoning from that which is flawed, and—if there is a flaw in an argument—explain what it is.
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP4Model with mathematics. Students can apply the mathematics they know to solve problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace. Students who can apply what they know are comfortable making assumptions and approximations to simplify a complicated situation, realizing that these may need revision later. They are able to identify important quantities in a practical situation and map their relationships using such tools as diagrams, two-way tables, graphs, flowcharts and formulas. They can analyze those relationships mathematically to draw conclusions.
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP5Use appropriate tools strategically. Students consider the available tools when solving a mathematical problem. These tools might include pencil and paper, concrete models, a ruler, a protractor, a calculator, a spreadsheet, a computer algebra system, a statistical package, or dynamic geometry software. Students at various grade levels are able to identify relevant external mathematical resources, such as digital content located on a website, and use them to pose or solve problems. They are able to use technological tools to explore and deepen their understandings of concepts.
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP6Attend to precision. Students try to communicate precisely to others. They try to use clear definitions in discussion with others and in their own reasoning. They state the meaning of the symbols they choose, including using the equal sign consistently and appropriately. They are careful about specifying units of measure, and labeling axes to clarify the correspondence with quantities in a problem. They calculate accurately and efficiently, express numerical answers with a degree of precision appropriate for the problem context.
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP8Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Students notice if calculations are repeated, and look both for general methods and for shortcuts. As they work to solve a problem, students maintain oversight of the process, while attending to the details. They continually evaluate the reasonableness of their intermediate results.
3-LS1: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
3-LS1-1Develop models to describe that organisms have unique and diverse life cycles but all have in common birth, growth, reproduction, and death.
3-LS3: Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
3-LS3-1Analyze the interpret data to provide evidence that plants and animals have traits inherited from parents and that variation of these traits exists in a group of similar organisms.