Agricultural Literacy Curriculum Matrix
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Sun, to Moo, to You!
3 - 5
Students will investigate the transfer of energy in the process of making milk. Students will understand that there are different forms of energy, that living things need energy to survive, and that the primary source of energy is the sun.
Activity 1: The Journey of Milk
- Glass of hay
- The Journey of Milk video
- Bouncing ball such as a basketball or kickball, 1 per group
- Using Energy activity sheet, 1 per student
Activity 2: Relay Race
- Sun, to Moo, to You Relay Cards, 1 set per group
- Colored card stock (3-5 different colors)
- Jump rope, 1 per group
Essential Files (maps, charts, pictures, or documents)
energy: power derived from the utilization of physical or chemical resources
photosynthesis: the process by which green plants use sunlight to make food from carbon dioxide and water
kinetic energy: energy that a body possesses by virtue of being in motion
Background Agricultural Connections
Interest Approach – Engagement
- Ask students, "What is energy?" Allow students to offer answers using their background knowledge.
- Ask students further questions to help them identify when energy is required and that it is transferred through cycles. Questions could include, "What activities require energy?" "Where do you get energy?"
- In this lesson, students will:
- investigate the transfer of energy in the process of making milk;
- demonstrate how energy can be lost during energy transfer; and
- identify the many ways humans and cows use energy.
Activity 1: The Journey of Milk
- Ask the students to think of their favorite sport. How would they feel if they played in the championship game of this sport and had not had anything to eat? Pair students up and have them share their responses with their partner.
- Survey the class for different responses. How many said tired, sick, or grumpy? Brainstorm with the students why they might feel tired. Ask how they would feel if, after the game, you offered them a nice, cold glass of… hay?! Show the students a glass full of hay or grass. Explain that dairy cows convert the feed they eat into the milk we consume on a daily basis. Energy plays an important role in this process.
- Show the students The Journey of Milk, a video about the process of making milk. Instruct the students to look for how dairy cows use and consume energy at each step of production.
- Discuss the video with the students and work as a class to construct a production timeline on the board. Explain that in each of these steps, energy transfers. In a moment, they will go outside to see how energy moves between objects and people.
- Take the students outside. Organize the students into groups of four and provide each group with a bouncing ball. Instruct the students to pass the ball between their group members in a variety of patterns. The teacher determines the patterns and may wish to blow a whistle to get the students’ attention in changing patterns. Possible pattern ideas include bounce pass-chest pass, skipping every other person, increasing the number of bounces with each pass, passing the ball clockwise vs. counter-clockwise, etc.
- Take the students inside the classroom to debrief the activity. Ideas for discussion:
- Use student volunteers to demonstrate how we use kinetic energy to pass the ball.
- Use student volunteers to demonstrate how we absorb kinetic energy when we catch the ball.
- What happens to energy when the ball bounces?
- What happens to the ball when it is windy outside?
- What happens if you bounce a ball on grass? A basketball court?
- Explain that just as we used energy to pass the ball, we use energy to do many other things in our daily lives as well. Distribute the Using Energy activity sheet. Instruct the students to first identify and label ways our bodies use energy.
- Next, they will identify and label how dairy cows use energy. Focus on the energy dairy cows use to create milk. Ask the students to share with a partner where the energy comes from and where it goes when cows create milk. Have the partners share with entire class.
- Briefly, review the timeline created at the beginning of the lesson and review how energy moves between each step of the process.
Activity 2: Relay Race
- In preparation for this activity, copy the Sun, to Moo, to You Relay Cards onto 3-5 different colored sheets of cardstock. Cut each card out, creating a set of relay cards for 3-5 different teams.
- Divide the students into teams of seven students. Teams without seven students will need to select one or more members to complete the relay twice.
- Assign each team a color based on the color of their Sun, to Moo, to You Relay Cards. Outside, the students line up with their teams in single file lines. Five yards in front of each team’s starting line, place a jump rope. Several feet beyond the jump rope, spread out the team’s relay cards face down. Five yards further, place a finish line.
- Explain to the students that they are about to participate in a relay race team competition. Build up the importance of supporting each other and contributing to the goals of the team. Demonstrate how each student will individually leave his or her team’s starting line. They will run to the jump rope and jump rope five times. Next, they will pick up one of the seven relay cards and run to the finish line. Once they are at the finish line, they will yell, “Moo!” to signal the next teammate in line to begin the relay.
- Once the entire team has crossed the finish line, the team members will work together to put each of the relay cards in the correct order. The cards will create a sequence showing how energy moves within the process of making milk. When the team has completed the entire relay, team members must all sit quietly in a line. The first team sitting quietly on the grass wins! The winning group reviews the correct order with the class.
Concept Elaboration and Evaluation
After conducting these activities, review and summarize the following key concepts:
- Dairy cattle produce milk. Milk and other dairy products, such as yogurt and cheese, are a healthy source of protein to our diet.
- All energy is originally derived from the sun.
- Plants produce energy through photosynthesis and cattle eat plants such as grass, hay, and grain. Cattle convert the plant energy into producing milk which provides healthy foods for our diet. (From the sun, to moo, to you)
- Play kickball, baseball, or another team sport to observe the loss and gain of kinetic energy.
- Take the students on a field trip to a dairy to see the actual process of milk production.
- Ask a local dairyman to visit your class as a guest speaker.
- Instead of completing the Using Energy activity sheet, instruct the students to draw a picture of themselves engaged in a daily activity.
- Ask the students to identify and label ten ways they are using energy in the picture.
We welcome your feedback! Please take a minute to tell us how to make this lesson better or to give us a few gold stars!
Have the students keep a journal tracking where they receive energy and how they use energy on a daily basis. By surveying the class, students can create graphs illustrating their personal and/or collective energy cycles.
Teach the students about other forms of energy such as thermal or electrical energy. Bring in visual aids, like a light bulb or a candle, to demonstrate each of the different forms.
Explore the need for radiant and chemical energy in plant growth. Create a student experiment that allows groups to run trials on plants with or without sunlight.
Create scenario cards for group role-plays. Cards may include eating a meal at a restaurant, running a race, growing a flower, talking on the phone, sitting in the sun, etc. Each group will perform its role-play without speaking, and the class identifies which forms of energy are present in the role-play.
Work in groups to research a form of energy such as radiant, kinetic, thermal, sound, or electrical energy. Have the groups draw an image that represents the concept. Allow time for the groups to explain their drawings to the class.
Suggested Companion Resources
- Better Butter (Activity)
- Chuck's Ice Cream Wish (Tales of the Dairy Godmother) (Book)
- Clarabelle (Book)
- Has a Cow Saved Your Life? (Book)
- Kiss the Cow! (Book)
- Milk Comes From a Cow? (Book)
- The Cow in Patrick O'Shanahan's Kitchen (Book)
- Brittlelactica: Planet in Need (Multimedia)
- Dairy in the Mountain West: Our Family of Farmers (Multimedia)
- From Moo to You Video (Multimedia)
- Make Mine Milk (Multimedia)
- Moo 2 You DVD (Multimedia)
- The Journey of Milk (Multimedia)
- The Real Reason Leaves Change Color in the Fall (Multimedia)
- Timelapse: Photosynthesis Seen from Space (Multimedia)
- Why Can a Cow Eat Grass? Video (Multimedia)
- Dairy Reader (Booklets & Readers)
- Discover Dairy (Website)
State Standards for Utah
Grade 4: SEEd Strand 4.1Through the study of organisms, inferences can be made about environments both past and present. Plants and animals have both internal and external structures that serve various functions for growth, survival, behavior, and reproduction. Animals use different sense receptors specialized for particular kinds of information to understand and respond to their environment. Some kinds of plants and animals that once lived on Earth can no longer be found. However, fossils from these organisms provide evidence about the types of organisms that lived long ago and the nature of their environments. Additionally, the presence and location of certain fossil types indicate changes that have occurred in environments over time.
Standard 4.1.1Construct an explanation from evidence that plants and animals have internal and external structures that function to support survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction. Emphasize how structures support an organism’s survival in its environment and how internal and external structures of plants and animals vary within the same and across multiple Utah environments. Examples of structures could include thorns on a stem to prevent predation or gills on a fish to allow it to breathe underwater. (LS1.A)
Standard 4.1.2Develop and use a model of a system to describe how animals receive different types of information from their environment through their senses, process the information in their brain, and respond to the information. Emphasize how animals are able to use their perceptions and memories to guide their actions. Examples could include models that explain how animals sense and then respond to different aspects of their environment such as sounds, temperature, or smell. (LS1.D)
Grade 5: SEEd Strand 5.3Matter cycles within ecosystems and can be traced from organism to organism. Plants use energy from the Sun to change air and water into matter needed for growth. Animals and decomposers consume matter for their life functions, continuing the cycling of matter. Human behavior can affect the cycling of matter. Scientists and engineers design solutions to conserve Earth’s environments and resources.
Standard 5.3.2Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information that animals obtain energy and matter from the food they eat for body repair, growth, and motion and to maintain body warmth. Emphasize that the energy used by animals was once energy from the Sun. Cellular respiration will be taught in Grades 6 through 8. (PS3.D, LS1.C)
Grade 3: Science Standard 5Students will understand that the sun is the main source of heat and light for things living on Earth. They will also understand that the motion of rubbing objects together may produce heat.
Objective 1Provide evidence showing that the sun is the source of heat and light for Earth. Meeting one or more of the following indicators: b) Observe and report how sunlight affects plant growth. c) Provide examples of how sunlight affects people and animals by providing heat and light.
Agricultural Literacy Outcomes
Agriculture and the Environment
- Explain how the interaction of the sun, soil, water, and weather in plant and animal growth impacts agricultural production (T1.3-5.b)
Common Core Connections
Speaking and Listening: Anchor Standards
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.1Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.2Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.6Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.
Language: Anchor Standards
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.L.4Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.
4-LS1: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
4-LS1-1Construct an argument that plants and animals have internal and external structures that function to support survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction.
5-ESS2: Earth's Systems
5-ESS2-1Develop a model using an example to describe ways in which the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and/or atmosphere interact.
5-LS1: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
5-LS1-1Support an argument that plants get the materials they need for growth chiefly from air and water.