Agricultural Literacy Curriculum Matrix
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Inherited Traits in the Living Corn Necklace (Grades 3-5)
3 - 5
Students will observe the growth of Indian corn and popcorn seeds, observe similarities and differences between the two varieties, and discuss heredity.
Activity 1: Trait Variation
- Pictures of crop plants
- Pictures or ears of dried popcorn and Indian corn
Activity 2: Living Corn Necklace
- Cotton balls, 1 per student*
- Small plastic jewelry bags, 1 per student*
- Popcorn seeds, 1 per student*
- Indian corn seeds, 1 per student*
- Necklace-length piece of yarn, 1 per student*
- Water, 1 cup per group
- Permanent markers, 1 per group
- Hand lenses, 1 per student or pair
- Metric rulers, 1 per student or pair
- Pictures of mature popcorn and Indian corn plants
- We’re Expecting... activity sheet, 1 per student
*These items are included in the Living Necklace Kit, which is available for purchase from agclassroomstore.com.
Essential Files (maps, charts, pictures, or documents)
cross-pollination: transfer of pollen from one plant to another
kernel: the seed of a corn plant and the part that we eat
ear: female part of a corn plant that contains the cob, the silks, and the eggs that will become kernels
hybrid: produced by cross-pollinating two different inbred parent plants; plants are high-yielding and vigorous but results of saving seed are unreliable
open-pollination: pollination that occurs naturally without human interference; open-pollinated varieties are developed simply by saving seed from the most desirable plants, resulting in high genetic diversity among offspring
self-pollination: transfer of pollen from the male part of a flower to the female part of that same flower or another flower on the same plant; in corn this rarely happens in the field, but it may be done by plant breeders to develop desired traits
tassel: the male part of a corn plant that emerges from the top of the plant and bears many small flowers that release pollen grains
Background Agricultural Connections
Interest Approach – Engagement
- Remind students about the similarities and differences among humans that come from inherited traits. Ask students to list various inherited traits.
- Ask students if plants have traits that are inherited through their genetics just like humans. Tell your class that you are going to investigate the genetic variation present in plants.
Activity 1: Trait Variation
- Remind students about the similarities and differences among humans that come from inherited traits. Tell them that the class is now going to investigate the amount of variation present in crop plants.
- Divide students into groups and provide each group with a picture of a field of crop plants, such as corn, beans, etc. Ask each group to make a chart of the similarities and differences they can see between plants in the pictures. Discuss how the amount of variation they observe compares to the amount of variation that can be observed in humans. As a class, brainstorm reasons why farmers might not want variation among plants they grow to produce crops.
- Show each group of students an ear of dried popcorn and an ear of Indian corn. If you do not have ears of corn available, you can use pictures or have students compare all of the popcorn seeds and all of the Indian corn seeds that will be used in Activity 2.
- Ask each group to make a chart of similarities and differences between the kernels on an ear (each kernel is an individual offspring of the plant that produced the ear). As a class, discuss their observations. Discuss the possible sources of variation (sexual reproduction, open pollination). Also compare the traits of the two corn varieties.
- Explain to the students that in general, it is easier for farmers to manage uniform crops. For example, most corn is harvested using a machine called a combine. All of the corn is harvested at the same time, so it is best if it all matures at the same time. However, sometimes variation is desirable. Indian corn is used mostly for ornamental purposes, so variation in the color of the kernels is desirable.
Activity 2: Living Corn Necklace
- Tell the students that they will continue their investigation of corn by observing how corn seeds germinate and begin to grow. They will observe two varieties, Indian corn and popcorn, that have been selected over time for different traits.
- Provide each student with one popcorn seed and one Indian corn seed. Ask each student to begin his or her corn journal by drawing a picture of each seed and writing several sentences to describe it.
- Provide groups with the materials needed for each student to make a “Living Necklace” (plastic jewelry bag, cotton balls, and yarn), permanent marker(s) and a cup of water. Direct students to make their necklaces as follows:
- Use the permanent marker to label one side of the bag P and the other side I.
- Dip a cotton ball in water so that it is thoroughly wet but not dripping. Excess water will cause the seeds not to sprout.
- Place the cotton ball in the small plastic bag.
- Put one popcorn seed on the side of the cotton ball facing the label P.
- Put one Indian corn seed on the other side of the cotton ball, facing the label I. The labels will help students remember which seed is which.
- Seal the bag. String the yarn through the hole in the jewelry bag. Tie a knot in the end of the string to form a necklace.
- Bags can be hung from tacks on a bulletin board and taken down for student observations.
- Teaching Tip: The corn seeds will sprout in three to six days. Starting on a Friday and making the first observations on Monday will speed up this activity.
- For one week have students record in their journals the changes they observe in their seeds, including information about observable traits such as: number of days from “planting” until the root and the shoot can be seen; root and shoot lengths and color; and number of leaves and roots.
- Use hand lenses to observe the roots and shoots as they emerge and grow.
- Use rulers to measure the length of roots and leaves as they grow.
- Teaching Tip: It is difficult to take the seedlings out of the bags and get them back in without breaking the roots. Ask students to measure through the bag instead. The roots will curl, so you may want to suggest measuring them in sections and estimating as necessary.
- In small groups, have students make charts or graphs of the data they collected for measurable traits (leaf and root length). Ask them to look for differences between the popcorn and Indian corn.
- As a class, discuss how each group compared their data for popcorn and Indian corn. Which kinds of charts or graphs worked the best? Were there noticeable differences between the popcorn and Indian corn seedlings?
- Discuss how plant breeders control inheritance and work to develop seeds that will reliably express desired traits. Popcorn has been selected for different traits than Indian corn.
- Compare the traits of the corn seedlings to those of mature corn plants (using photographs).
- Use the We’re Expecting... activity sheet to review the difference between cross-pollination and self-pollination and to introduce the concept of dominant and recessive traits.
Concept Elaboration and Evaluation
After conducting these activities, review and summarize the following key concepts:
- Plants inherit specific traits from the parent plant just like humans or animals inherit traits from their parents.
- Farmers use science and genetics to improve their crops.
We welcome your feedback! Please take a minute to tell us how to make this lesson better or to give us a few gold stars!
Assign students to compare similarities and differences in traits among plants of a species growing in the wild and among plants of another cultivated species.
Use In the Three Sisters Garden: Native American Stories and Seasonal Activities for the Curious Child by JoAnne Dennee, et al. to incorporate stories from Native American history and integrate fifth grade social studies curriculum.
If you'd like to teach your students the difference between a monocot and dicot, use a corn seed and a bean seed in their living necklace. You can also find more resources and information in the Seeds, Miraculous Seeds lesson.
Use the lesson plan Peas in a Pod to further explore heredity by modeling the probability of dominant and recessive trait inheritance with the Punnett square.
Grow Fast Plants®, and use the activities in Spiraling Through Life with Fast Plants: An Inquiry-Rich Manual by Robin Greenler to follow germination, growth and development, flowering, and pollination.
Grow the Brassica butterfly, which lives on Fast Plants®, enabling students to observe the life cycle stages of an insect undergoing metamorphosis from egg to adult butterfly in just 26 days. Brassica butterfly eggs are available from Carolina Science and Math (Item #144100).
Suggested Companion Resources
- Wisconsin Fast Plants® (Activity)
- Corn in the Story of Agriculture (Book)
- Corn is Maize: The Gift of the Indians (Book)
- Four Seasons of Corn: A Winnebago Tradition (Book)
- Gregor Mendel: The Friar Who Grew Peas (Book)
- How a Seed Grows (Book)
- Popcorn Country: The Story of America's Favorite Snack (Book)
- Popcorn! (Book)
- The Popcorn Book (Book)
- The Tiny Seed (Book)
- Bitter/Sweet Cucumber Taste Test (Kit)
- Farming in a Glove (Corn Seeds) (Kit)
- Get Popping! (Kit)
- Living Necklace Kits (Kit)
- Parent/Offspring Cards (Kit)
- Popcorn on the Cob (Kit)
- Corn and Soybean Processing and Utilization Poster (Poster, Map, Infographic)
- America's Heartland: Nebraska Corn Farm (Multimedia)
- How It's Made: Corn Tortillas (Multimedia)
- How Stuff Works: Corn Plastic (Multimedia)
- Into the Outdoors: A-maize-ing Corn (Multimedia)
- Popped Secret: The Mysterious Origin of Corn (Multimedia)
- Those Amazing Kernels of Corn! (Multimedia)
- Native American Gardening (Teacher Reference)
- DNA Learning Center (Website)
- Evolution of Corn (Website)
- Genetic Science Learning Center (Website)
- Heredity (UEN Sci-Ber Text for 5th Grade) (Website)
State Standards for Utah
Grade 3: SEEd Strand 3.2Organisms (plants and animals, including humans) have unique and diverse life cycles, but they all follow a pattern of birth, growth, reproduction, and death. Different organisms vary in how they look and function because they have different inherited traits. An organism’s traits are inherited from its parents and can be influenced by the environment. Variations in traits between individuals in a population may provide advantages in surviving and reproducing in particular environments. When the environment changes, some organisms have traits that allow them to survive, some move to new locations, and some do not survive. Humans can design solutions to reduce the impact of environmental changes on organisms.
Standard 3.2.1Develop and use models to describe changes that organisms go through during their life cycles. Emphasize that organisms have unique and diverse life cycles but follow a pattern of birth, growth, reproduction, and death. Examples of changes in life cycles could include how some plants and animals look different at different stages of life or how other plants and animals only appear to change size in their life. (LS1.B)
Standard 3.2.2Analyze and interpret data to identify patterns of traits that plants and animals have inherited from parents. Emphasize the similarities and differences in traits between parent organisms and offspring and variation of traits in groups of similar organisms. (LS3.A, LS3.B)
Standard 3.2.4Construct an explanation showing how variations in traits and behaviors can affect the ability of an individual to survive and reproduce. Examples of traits could include large thorns protecting a plant from being eaten or strong smelling flowers to attracting certain pollinators. Examples of behaviors could include animals living in groups for protection or migrating to find more food. (LS2.D, LS4.B)
Grade 5: Science Standard 5Students will understand that traits are passed from the parent organisms to their offspring, and that sometimes the offspring may possess variations of these traits that may help or hinder survival in a given environment.
Objective 1Using supporting evidence, show that traits are transferred from a parent organism to its offspring. Meeting one or more of the following indicators: a) Make a chart and collect data identifying various traits among a given population (e.g., the hand span of students in the classroom, the color and texture of different apples, the number of petals of a given flower). b) Identify similar physical traits of a parent organism and its offspring (e.g., trees and saplings, leopards and cubs, chickens and chicks). c) Compare various examples of offspring that do not initially resemble the parent organism but mature to become similar to the parent organism.(e.g., mealworms and darkling beetles, tadpoles and frogs, seedlings and vegetables, caterpillars and butterflies). d) Contrast inherited traits with traits and behaviors that are not inherited but may be learned or induced by environmental factors (e.g., cat purring to cat meowing to be let out of the house; the round shape of a willow is inherited, while leaning away from the prevailing wind is induced). e) Investigate variations and similarities in plants grown from seeds of a parent plant (e.g., how seeds from the same plant species can produce different colored flowers or identical flowers).
Agricultural Literacy Outcomes
Science, Technology, Engineering & Math
- Identify examples of how the knowledge of inherited traits is applied to farmed plants and animals in order to meet specific objectives (i.e., increased yields, better nutrition, etc.) (T4.3-5.c)
- Provide examples of science being applied in farming for food, clothing, and shelter products (T4.3-5.d)
Common Core Connections
Reading: Anchor Standards
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.1Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
Speaking and Listening: Anchor Standards
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.1Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
Language: Anchor Standards
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.L.1Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.L.4Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.
3-LS3: Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
3-LS3-1Analyze the interpret data to provide evidence that plants and animals have traits inherited from parents and that variation of these traits exists in a group of similar organisms.