Agricultural Literacy Curriculum Matrix
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How Much Is Dirt Worth? (Grades 3-5)
3 - 5
Students will understand that topsoil is a limited resource with economic value. Activities include slicing up an apple to demonstrate the distribution of Earth’s soil resources and exploring scenarios involving the dollar valuation of soil.
- Large apple
- Cutting Board
- Apple Land Use Model, available for purchase from agclassroomstore.com (optional)
- Earth's Soil Resources Pie Chart activity sheet
Essential Files (maps, charts, pictures, or documents)
conservation tillage: farming methods that reduce the intensity or frequency of tilling in order to maintain some ground cover throughout the year and disturb the soil as little as possible while still providing the conditions needed to grow a productive crop
contour planting: tilling and planting crops on the contour, or at a right angle to the slope, which slows water flowing downhill and reduces erosion
cover crops: crops grown between periods of regular production for the purpose of protecting and improving the soil; generally a crop with fibrous roots (like clover, various grasses, vetch, etc.) that will hold soil and often a legume that will add nitrogen to the soil
nonrenewable resource: a limited natural resource that cannot be replaced or reproduced at a rate that will meet demand over the long term
strip cropping: planting in strips or bands of alternating crops that serve as barriers to erosion; crops that have fibrous roots hold the soil better than crops with tap roots, and taller crops act as wind buffers
sustainable agriculture: an approach to agriculture that focuses on producing food while improving the economic viability of farms, protecting natural resources, and enhancing quality of life for farmers and society as a whole
value: usefulness or importance of something; also, the amount of money that something is worth
Background Agricultural Connections
Interest Approach – Engagement
- Ask your students to name some items that they would consider valuable. Students may list items that are of monetary or sentimental value.
- Next, ask students if they believe that soil is valuable. Discuss why or why not. Guide the class discussion to help students begin to understand that soil is a valuable resource. Inform students that they will be learning why soil is valuable.
Activity 1: Slicing Up Earth’s Land Resources
- This activity uses an apple to demonstrate the distribution of Earth’s soil resources. The Apple Land Use Model can be used as an alternative demonstration option. Ask students to fill in the Earth’s Soil Resources Pie Chart activity sheet while you perform the following demonstration.
- Cut the apple into four equal wedges. Three of these quarters represent the oceans, which occupy 75% of Earth’s surface. Set these aside.
- The remaining quarter represents land area, which occupies 25% of Earth’s surface. Take this quarter, and cut it in half, so you have two, one-eighth sections.
- One of these sections represents deserts, swamps, mountains, and polar regions; this half of our land, or one-eighth (12.5%) of Earth’s surface, is not suitable for people to live or grow crops on. Set this section aside.
- The other eighth represents land where people can live. There are some places where people can live, but crops can’t be grown. Slice this section lengthwise into four equal parts. Now you have four 1/32nd pieces of an apple, each representing 3.1% of Earth’s surface.
- The first section represents the areas of the world with rocky soils that are too poor for any type of food production. Set this section aside.
- The next two sections represent land that is too wet or too hot for food production. Set these sections aside also.
- The fourth section represents the area of the world that is most suitable for development and agricultural cultivation. The best lands for agriculture are often desirable places to build homes and towns as well.
- Carefully remove the peel of the last 1/32nd section. This small bit of peel represents all the soil of our earth upon which humans depend for food production.
Activity 2: Cost versus Value
- Discuss the economic, environmental, and societal value of soil. Then demonstrate some scenarios involving the dollar valuation of soil. Use the following examples or develop your own.
- Say you have 1 acre of land and 7 inches of topsoil. If every inch is worth $10 (round numbers simplify the math), your topsoil would be worth $70.
- Suppose you lose ½ inch of topsoil each year to erosion. How much money would you be losing each year? ($5.00 of topsoil from one acre) What is your topsoil now worth? ($65.00) At your current rate of topsoil loss, how many years will it take to lose all seven inches? (14 years)
- Discuss other losses that would occur (crops will be less productive, your income will go down, you will feed fewer people with the crops grown on your acre, sediment will wash into lakes and rivers downstream). How much would you be willing to pay to prevent erosion of your topsoil?
- Discuss the following questions:
- Since soils provide our food, how can we place a value on them? Who pays for soil conservation? Who benefits from soil conservation?
- What is an acre of farmland worth? What is an acre of city worth?
Concept Elaboration and Evaluation
After conducting these activities, review and summarize the following key concepts:
- Soil is a natural resource necessary to grow the crops that provide our food.
- Soil is a valuable and limited resource that is not renewable.
- It is important to preserve soil through conservation practices.
We welcome your feedback! Please take a minute to tell us how to make this lesson better or to give us a few gold stars!
If you are unable to acquire an apple, you can view The Earth as an Apple video instead.
Read Issue 3 of Ag Today titled Our Invaluable Natural Resources. This reader can be printed or accessed digitally. It helps students understand how plants and animals raised on farms depend on natural resources to live such as the sun, soil, water, and air to grow. Learn methods farmers use to protect and preserve these natural resources while still providing the food, fiber, and fuel we need to live.
Connect this lesson to Utah Studies by showing students the 14-minute video Dust Bowl: Grantsville Utah. This short documentary includes interviews from Utah residents who experienced the Grantsville Dust Bowl in the 1930s. Yes, Utah did experience its own dust bowl, but the cause was overgrazing rather than the turn of the plow.
Suggested Companion Resources
- A Handful of Dirt (Book)
- Dirt: The Scoop on Soil (Book)
- First Peas to the Table (Book)
- Jump Into Science: Dirt (Book)
- Mountains of Jokes About Rocks, Minerals, and Soil (Book)
- Rocks and Soil (Book)
- Soil! Get the Inside Scoop (Book)
- You Wouldn't Want to Live Without Dirt! (Book)
- Farming in a Glove (Kit)
- Apple Land Use Model (Poster, Map, Infographic)
- Apple as Planet Earth video (Multimedia)
- Dirt: Secrets in the Soil (DVD) (Multimedia)
- Dust Bowl: CBS 1955 Documentary (Multimedia)
- Dust Bowl: Grantsville, Utah (Multimedia)
- Soil Science Videos (Multimedia)
- Ag Today (Booklets & Readers)
- SOIL Reader (Booklets & Readers)
- Dig In: Hands-On Soil Investigations (Teacher Reference)
- School Gardens: A Guide for Gardening and Plant Science (Teacher Reference)
- Rocks and Soils (UEN Sci-ber Text for 4th Grade) (Website)
- Soil Center (Website)
- Soil Health Education Resources (Website)
- Soil Science Society of America (Website)
State Standards for Utah
Grade 5: SEEd Strand 5.3Matter cycles within ecosystems and can be traced from organism to organism. Plants use energy from the Sun to change air and water into matter needed for growth. Animals and decomposers consume matter for their life functions, continuing the cycling of matter. Human behavior can affect the cycling of matter. Scientists and engineers design solutions to conserve Earth’s environments and resources.
Standard 5.3.4Evaluate design solutions whose primary function is to conserve Earth’s environments and resources. Define the problem, identify criteria and constraints, analyze available data on proposed solutions, and determine an optimal solution. Emphasize how humans can balance everyday needs (agriculture, industry, and energy) while conserving Earth’s environments and resources. (ESS3.A, ESS3.C, ETS1.A, ETS1.B, ETS1.C)
Grade 4: Science Standard 3Students will understand the basic properties of rocks, the processes involved in the formation of soils, and the needs of plants provided by soil.
Objective 3Observe the basic components of soil and relate the components to plant growth. Meeting one or more of the following indicators: a) Observe and list the components of soil (i.e., minerals, rocks, air, water, living and dead organisms) and distinguish between the living, nonliving, and once living components of soil. b) Diagram or model a soil profile showing topsoil, subsoil, and bedrock, and how the layers differ in composition. c) Relate the components of soils to the growth of plants in soil (e.g., mineral nutrients, water). d) Explain how plants may help control the erosion of soil. e) Research and investigate ways to provide mineral nutrients for plants to grow without soil (e.g., grow plants in wet towels, grow plants in wet gravel, grow plants in water).
Agricultural Literacy Outcomes
Agriculture and the Environment
- Recognize the natural resources used in agricultural practices to produce food, feed, clothing, landscaping plants, and fuel (e.g., soil, water, air, plants, animals, and minerals) (T1.3-5.e)
Common Core Connections
Speaking and Listening: Anchor Standards
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.2Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
Mathematics: Practice Standards
CCSS.MATH.PRACTICE.MP2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. Students make sense of quantities and their relationships in problem situations. They bring two complementary abilities to bear on problems involving quantitative relationships: the ability to decontextualize—to abstract a given situation and represent it symbolically and manipulate the representing symbols as if they have a life of their own, without necessarily attending to their referents—and the ability to contextualize, to pause as needed during the manipulation process in order to probe into the referents for the symbols involved. Quantitative reasoning entails habits of creating a coherent representation of the problem at hand; considering the units involved; attending to the meaning of quantities, not just how to compute them; and knowing and flexibly using different properties of operations and objects.
Economics Standard 1: Scarcity
ObjectiveIdentify what they gain and what they give up when they make choices.