Agricultural Literacy Curriculum Matrix
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Fortified for Health
3 - 5
Students will learn about the process of fortification where vitamins and minerals are added to food to make it more healthful and to help people meet their recommended daily intake of different nutrients. With this activity, students will reenact an experiment to discover food fortification.
- Container of fortified orange juice (For example, the container may say "with calcium" or "with vitamin D.")
- Container of regular, non-fortified orange juice
- Disposable cups in two different colors, one of each for each student
- Box of whole grain wheat flakes cereal fortified with iron
- Empty boxes from other types of cereal; students can supply these from home
- Strong magnet
- Small resealable plastic bags
- Warm water
processing: to perform a series of mechanical or chemical operations on (something) in order to change or preserve it. In agriculture, raw commodities are processed to prepare them for the consumer.
fortification: the process of adding micronutrients (essential trace elements and vitamins) to food
Background Agricultural Connections
Interest Approach – Engagement
- Ask your students what it means to have a "healthy diet." As they offer their ideas, use guided questions to lead them to recognize that a healthy diet provides all of the essential nutrients for good health. This includes the correct balance of calories, vitamins, minerals, and water.
- Ask your students what happens if you do not receive the proper nutrients from the foods you eat. Allow students to offer their answers and explain that they will be learning about a way we can receive more nutrients from the foods we eat.
- Farmers and manufacturers work to develop foods with better nutritional content. Discuss the term fortification with your students. Explain that vitamins and minerals can be added to a food to make it more healthful and to help people meet their recommended daily intake of different nutrients.
- Ask students: What are some examples of fortification? Adding fiber to foods to promote digestive health, adding calcium and vitamin D to promote bone health, adding omega-3 fatty acids to support heart health, etc. What is the purpose of fortification? To provide more nutrients in the foods people eat.
- One food that is fortified and sold in grocery stores year-round is orange juice. Show the class an orange juice container. Point out where it says “with calcium” or “with vitamin D.” Cover the labels and give students samples of the two juices to taste, each in a different color of cup. Don’t tell students which is which.
- Ask students: Does fortified juice taste different than regular juice? When nutrients or vitamins are added to foods, this may change the flavor and appearance. Since taste is a major factor in what people will or won’t eat or drink, companies work to find the right balance between fortification and taste. They might conduct taste tests like this one to see if most people can tell the difference.
- Explain that another common fortified food is breakfast cereal. Show the class several empty cereal boxes.
- Ask students: What information is on the box to let the customer know that the cereal may have been fortified? Students will see words and phrases such as “plus omega-3s, good source of calcium and vitamin D, high in fiber, iron rich,” etc.
- Next show students the box of whole grain wheat cereal fortified with iron and point out on the label where it says the cereal contains iron.
- Ask students: Why do our bodies need iron? Iron is a mineral. Our hemoglobin contains iron. Hemoglobin carries oxygen from our lungs throughout our bodies. Having too little hemoglobin is called anemia. Iron also helps our muscles store oxygen and helps our bodies digest food.
- Show the students a plastic bag containing about one cup of whole grain wheat cereal fortified with iron. Ask a student volunteer to crush the cereal in the bag using his or her hands.
- Ask students: Can you see the iron that was added? No. If we can’t see the iron, how can we prove that it has been added to the cereal? Encourage students to think about the traits of other metals, which are attracted to magnets. Lead students to see that a magnet can help detect iron in the cereal.
- Fill the bag about half full of warm water and seal it carefully. Be sure to leave an air pocket inside the bag. Shake the bag gently to mix the cereal and water.
- After 30–60 minutes, invite students to watch as you place a strong magnet on the outside of the plastic bag.
- Ask students: What did you observe? Tiny black specks were attracted to where the magnet was. This is the iron in the fortified cereal.
- Allow small groups of students to use the bag and magnet to see the result up close.
Teaching Note: Test your whole grain wheat flake cereal in advance. Not all brands work equally well. Also be sure to use a strong magnet for maximum results.
Concept Elaboration and Evaluation
After conducting these activities, review and summarize the following key concepts:
- Foods are first produced on a farm, then processed, followed by being purchased by consumers.
- For some foods, the processing step involves fortification or the addition of essential nutrients.
- Fortification decreases the occurrence of disease caused by nutrient deficiencies.
Read Issue 2 of Ag Today titled Food, Keeping us Fueled for an Active Lifestyle. This reader can be printed or accessed digitally. Learn about the healthy and tasty food that farmers grow to help humans maintain a healthy diet. Follow the process from farm to plate and learn about serving sizes, food safety, and USDA's MyPlate.
Suggested Companion Resources
- Food Group Puzzle (Activity)
- Look Inside Food (Book)
- Ag Today (Booklets & Readers)
- Nutrition Ag Mag (Booklets & Readers)
State Standards for Utah
Grade 3: Health/Nutrition Standard 6The students will understand how a healthy diet and exercise can increase the likelihood of physical and mental wellness.
Objective 1Compare personal eating habits with a balanced diet. Meeting one or more of the following indicators: a) Record daily food intake. b) Determine a balanced diet based on the Food Guide Pyramid.
Objective 2Identify nutrient groups and the key functions of each. Meeting one or more of the following indicators: a) Identify nutrient groups; i.e., proteins, fats, water, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals. b) Name foods rich in key nutrients. c) Define the functions of basic nutrient groups.
Grade 4: Health/Nutrition Standard 6The students will understand how a healthy diet and exercise can increase the likelihood of physical and mental wellness.
Objective 1Specify key vitamins and minerals and their functions. Meeting one or more of the following indicators: a) Name vitamins and minerals vital to a healthy body; e.g., vitamins B and C, minerals calcium and iron. b) Determine the functions of key vitamins and minerals. c) Name foods rich in key vitamins and minerals. d) Identify nutritional problems related to vitamin and/or mineral deficiencies.
Objective 2Determine the relation between food intake and activity. Meeting one or more of the following indicators: a) Define calories. b) Estimate the number of calories needed for growth and body function. c) Predict the change in caloric requirements due to participation in activities. d) Plan a balanced food intake for one day.
Grade 5: Health/Nutrition Standard 6The students will understand how a healthy diet and exercise can increase the likelihood of physical and mental wellness.
Objective 1Predict the impact of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans on health. Meeting one or more of the following indicators: a) Know the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. b) Relate how following the Dietary Guidelines for Americans may impact the health of individuals as well as communities; e.g., obesity, heart disease, cancer, insurance rates, missed work days.
Objective 2Evaluate personal activity level and food intake with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and plan ways to improve health. Meeting one or more of the following indicators: a) Compare daily food intake and caloric output with Dietary Guidelines for Americans. b) Determine how changes in personal activity level and/or food intake may benefit personal health.
Agricultural Literacy Outcomes
Food, Health, and Lifestyle
- Describe the necessary food components of a healthy diet using the current dietary guidelines (T3.3-5.a)
- Distinguish between processed and unprocessed food (T3.3-5.c)
- Identify food sources of required food nutrients (T3.3-5.g)
Common Core Connections
Reading: Anchor Standards
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.1Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.10Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.4Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
Health Standard 1: Comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention to enhance health.
1.5.1Describe the relationship between healthy behaviors and personal health.
Health Standard 5: Demonstrate the ability to use decision-making skills to enhance health.
5.5.3List healthy options to health-related issues or problems.
5.5.5Choose a healthy option when making a decision.
3-5-ETS1: Engineering Design
3-5-ETS1-1Define a simple design problem reflecting a need or a want that includes specified criteria for success and constraints on materials, time, or cost.