Agricultural Literacy Curriculum Matrix
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Good Taste: Honey Bee Forager Food Preference
9 - 12
Two 50-minute class periods
In this lesson students learn about the foraging behavior of bees and hypothesize if the bee’s behavior is related to its ability to detect sugar. Students will then determine which type of foraging bee would be best for pollination or honey production. Students will learn about the process of gel electrophoresis as a genetic tool and analyze DNA to identify strains of bees who are better pollen-collecting bees or better nectar-collecting bees.
- A small salty snack (such as pretzels) and a sweet snack (such as a piece of candy) for each student
Activity 1 and 2:
- Good Taste: Forager Food Preference student handout, 1 per student (used for all activities)
- Good Taste: Forager Food Preference Teacher Key
- Activity 1 Field Notes
- Student access to computer or electronic device
For the teacher to prepare ahead of time:
- Gel electrophoresis Template and Instructions to make Gel electrophoresis notecards, 1 per lab group
- Card stock
- 1 Ziplock bag (for storage of cards)
For each lab group:
- 1 gel electrophoresis notecard
- Small bowl
- Washing soda solution
- Spoon to stir
- Activity 1 Field Notes
Essential Files (maps, charts, pictures, or documents)
- Gel Electrophoresis Instructions and Template
- Activity 1 Field Notes
- Good Taste: Forager Food Preference Teacher KEY
- Good Taste: Forager Food Preference student handout
response threshold: likelihood of reacting to task-associated stimuli
probiscis extension response (PER): a method for measuring a bee’s response threshold to sugar
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): molecules inside cells of all living things that carry genetic information and pass characteristic traits from one generation to the next
chromosomes: organized package of all DNA found in the nucleus of the cell
genes: sections of DNA on a chromosome that code for the proteins our body needs to function
DNA fingerprinting: tool used by biologists that analyzes an individual’s unique collection of DNA
restriction enzyme: enzyme that cuts DNA at a sequence of nucleotides
gel electrophoresis: procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electric voltage to the gel
Did you know? (Ag Facts)
- In a honey bee colony with a population of 50,000-60,000 workers, nearly 20,000 of those workers are forager bees bringing in nectar and pollen to feed the colony.
Background Agricultural Connections
Interest Approach – Engagement
- Offer students a choice between a sweet and a salty food.
- After students have selected their choice, ask them why they chose the food they did. Allow a few students to share their answers and discuss reasons why some students chose sweet and others chose salty. Discuss with students what factors might impact our sense of taste and our preference.
Activity 1: Foraging Behavior Experiment
- Give each student one Good Taste: Forager Food Preference student handout and one copy of the Activity 1 Field Notes.
- As a class, begin reading on page 1 of the handout. Be sure students understand the different materials gathered by honey bees (nectar for energy, pollen for proper development, and water to cool the colony).
- After the reading, have students work individually to formulate a research question (question 1 on handout).
- Discuss the experimental set-up. Key points are listed below:
- Plastic numbered tags are glued to the back of 50 worker bees
- Bees are returned to the colony and allowed to forage as usual
- As the bees return to the hive after foraging, the student captures and examines the bee to determine what resource has been brought home (pollen will be carried on the leg in a pellet, nectar or water can be regurgitated by the bee by gently applying pressure to the abdomen)
- Ask if students think that the type of resource brought home is randomly selected by the bees or if certain bees are specialized to bring home specific resources. Have students use their answers to develop a testable hypothesis (question 2 on handout).
- Have students work in pairs to complete the data table at the bottom of page 1 using the Activity 1 Field Notes. Once the table is filled out, students will use the data to answer the remaining questions.
- Discuss if the data supported their hypothesis or not (depending on their hypothesis, it may or may not be supported). Encourage critical thinking by having students discuss why water is brought back only in the afternoon (hotter temperature require cooling of the hive) and why some foragers returned to the hive with no resource (students don’t need to know this yet, just discuss possible reasons such as maybe they couldn’t find anything, maybe nothing was attractive enough to bring back, etc.)
- Discuss possible reasons why bees might specialize for certain resources. (It might be a learned response, it could be a genetic trait, etc.)
Activity 2: Proboscis Extension Response
- Read the introduction for Activity 2 located on page 3 of the handout. Review a few key points:
- A proboscis is like the bee’s tongue.
- Antennae act like the bee’s nose, but can also detect a resource’s level of sweetness.
- Nectar is made of sugars and is sweet. Pollen is not made of sugar and is not sweet.
- Explain that a test can be performed to determine the point at which bees can detect sugar. This test is called the Proboscis Extension Response (PER) assay. Have students watch the video of a PER assay as you explain the following steps:
- A sugar solution is applied to the antenna of a restrained bee.
- The bee will reflexively extend its tongue to seek out the sugary reward IF it can detect the sugar content in the solution.
- A series of sugar concentrations are tested to determine the bee’s response threshold (the lowest sugar concentration that will elicit a positive response).
- Bees are then identified as having a relatively high or low response threshold depending on their sensitivity to sugar.
- Based on what students have learned about PER, have each student predict the foraging behavior for bees with high and low PER thresholds. Apply their predictions to the bees that were tested in the earlier experiment to determine which bees would have high and low PER thresholds by filling out the table at the bottom of page 3.
- Complete page 4 of the handout by having the students examine the graph showing data from a PER assay experiment. Apply information learned from this graph to determine if the student’s hypothesis was supported. (Yes, it was supported. A greater portion of pollen collecting bees responded to low concentrations of sugar. A smaller portion of nectar collectors responded to low concentrations of sugar. Instead, nectar collectors responded only to high concentrations of sugar.)
Activity 3: Gel electrophoresis and DNA fingerprinting as genetic tools
- Explain to students that now that we have learned that foragers specialize in what resources they bring home and that these specialized foragers also respond differently to sugar, we can start to examine what might be the reason or mechanism for these differences. Could there be a genetic component to explain this difference in ability to perceive sweetness?
- Have students read the introduction to Activity 3 located on page 5 of the handout. Students should then work through the DNA fingerprinting simulation.
- As the lab groups experience the simulation, have them write the purpose of each step in the DNA fingerprinting process in their handout.
- Discuss answers as a group and explain that DNA fingerprinting is one way of analyzing a DNA sample. The location of the cuts made by the restriction enzyme all occur at the same nucleotide sequence (or restriction site), but depending on the DNA sequence, the size of the resulting bands will be unique just like a fingerprint! The differences seen in the gel electrophoresis are a result of the different sizes of DNA.
Activity 4: Analyzing forager DNA
- Read with students about Activity 4. Explain that while the genes responsible for pollen collecting and nectar collecting are still being researched, the following activity simulates how DNA testing might one day be used to visualize the genetic differences between these two strains of bees.
- Instruct students to use the sample DNA cuts as a guide and mark the cuts on the pollen and nectar collector DNA on page 6 of their handout. Document the number of cuts and segments made by the restriction enzyme in the table. Answer the follow-up questions.
Activity 5: Using gel electrophoresis to identify unknown bees
- Split students up into lab groups. Have students read through procedures before they begin. Instruct groups to gather their lab materials and begin.
- Fill bowl approximately 1/2 full with water, add 0.5 tsp of washing soda solution. Mix with spoon.
- Dip card into solution until pink dots become visible and quickly remove it.
- Briefly sketch results into the data table.
- Using what they learned from the DNA fingerprinting simulation and their answers from Activity 4, have students answer the follow-up questions.
Concept Elaboration and Evaluation
After conducting these activities, help students review and apply what they have learned:
- Review the importance of pollinators for our food crops.
- Have students discuss and reflect on how foraging behavior may impact pollination effectiveness or honey production potential. “Nectar gatherers quite often forage around the base of the flower and are not as vigorous on the blossom as pollen gatherers. Pollen gatherers are usually more vigorous on the blossom. As a result, pollen gatherers have more pollen on their body hairs than nectar gatherers. This must enhance their value as pollinators. Because honey bees collecting pollen contact the anthers and stigmas and usually work faster than nectar gatherers, they are regarded as more efficient pollinators. In one trial, nectar-gathering bees set 31% of the flowers and fertilized 15% of the ovules, whereas the pollen gatherers set 46% of the flowers and fertilized 28% of the ovules.”2
- Discuss how honey bee queen breeders might select for nectar foraging behavior if they are selling to honey producers or pollen foraging behavior if they are selling to commercial beekeepers who pollinate. Point out that this optimizes the work of the bees for the grower or beekeeper, but not necessarily for the needs of the hive. This is the trade-off.
We welcome your feedback! Please take a minute to tell us how to make this lesson better or to give us a few gold stars!
Suggested Companion Resources
- Imported Food Safety (Activity)
- Anatomy of a Worker Bee (Poster, Map, Infographic)
- Crop Modification Techniques (Poster, Map, Infographic)
- Honey Bee Study Prints (Poster, Map, Infographic)
- Bees: Tales from the Hive (Multimedia)
- How It's Made: Honey (Multimedia)
- Introduction to Pollination video (Multimedia)
- TedTalk- The First 21 Days of a Bees Life (Multimedia)
- 23andMe (Website)
- Conserving Pollinators: A Primer for Gardeners (Website)
- DNA Learning Center (Website)
- Genetic Science Learning Center (Website)
- Pollen Gallery (Website)
- Utah State University Bee Lab (Website)
Agricultural Literacy Outcomes
Science, Technology, Engineering & Math
- Identify current and emerging scientific discoveries and technologies and their possible use in agriculture (e.g., biotechnology, bio-chemical, mechanical, etc.) (T4.9-12.e)
Common Core Connections
Reading: Anchor Standards
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.4Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
Speaking and Listening: Anchor Standards
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.1Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.2Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
Animal Systems Career Pathway
AS.04.03Apply scientific principles to breed animals.
AS.06.03Select and train animals for specific purposes and maximum performance based on anatomy and physiology.
HS-LS3 Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
HS-LS3-1Ask questions to clarify relationships about the role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the instructions for characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring.