Agricultural Literacy Curriculum Matrix
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Sheep See, Sheep Do (Grades 6-8)
6 - 8
Activity 1: 1 hour, Activity 2: 30 minutes, Activity 3: variable
Students will explore the difference between inherited and acquired traits and understand why knowledge of inherited and acquired traits is important to agriculture. Activities in this lesson include trait sorting, two short movies, a PTC taste test, and student presentations.
- Sticky notes, 1 per student
- AITC Inherited vs. Acquired Kahoot! game
- Personal devices for students to play
- Projector/computer combination
- Alternative Activity:
- Traits List, cut apart and laminated
- Two baskets, one labeled “Inherited” and one labeled “Acquired”
- Alternative Activity:
- Lamb Eats What Mom Eats video
- PTC testing strips, available from most science supply companies
- Hard candies
- Guns, Germs, and Steel video clip
- Farm Animal Prompt Cards, cut apart, 1 per student or group of students
- Presentation Rubric, 1 per student
Essential Files (maps, charts, pictures, or documents)
selective breeding: the intentional breeding of organisms with desirable traits in an attempt to produce offspring with desirable characteristics or with improved traits
domesticate: to breed a population of animals or plants to serve the purposes of human beings and to need and accept human care
acquired trait: traits that develop during the lifetime of the organism but are not in the organism’s DNA and are not inherited by its offspring; acquired traits are often learned
inherited trait: a genetically determined characteristic or quality that distinguishes someone or something; inherited traits are passed in DNA from parents to their offspring
trait: a distinguishing characteristic or quality
temperament: the usual attitude, mood, or behavior of a person or animal
Did you know? (Ag Facts)
- More than 50 breeds of sheep are raised in the United States.1
- As of January 2015, there were more than 5.2 million sheep in the United States.1
- Sheep eat a wide range of plants and can work like self-propelled lawnmowers to control weeds. They are even being used by ski resorts to keep slopes clear of brush and weeds in the summer.1
Background Agricultural Connections
Interest Approach – Engagement
- Provide each student with a sticky note. Ask students to write their names in the middle of the sticky note.
- Draw a large table on the board with two columns. Title one column "Like what friends and family like" and the other "Just born that way."
- Ask students to place their sticky notes under the statement that they most agree with in response to the following poll question: “What determines the type of ice cream that you prefer; do you like what your friends and family like, or were you just born that way?”
- Lead a short, open-ended discussion on the poll results. Ask students why they answered as they did. Tell them that you will return to this poll question after learning more about inherited and acquired traits.
Activity 1: Traits
- Explain to your students the difference between an inherited and an acquired trait.
- Provide each student with a personal device such as a laptop, tablet, or smartphone, and use the AITC Inherited vs. Acquired Kahoot! game (start a free account if you do not already have one and search the public Kahoots for AITC Inherited vs. Acquired Traits) to help students practice identifying the difference between inherited and acquired traits. If you do not have enough devices for each student, they may play as teams, or you may use the alternative activity described below.
- Alternative Activity:
- Pass out one trait from the Traits List to each student.
- Using two baskets that you have labeled “Inherited” and “Acquired,” ask students to place their trait statement into the correct basket as you walk down the aisle or to their tables.
- Once all the traits are placed in the baskets, read each trait card in each basket and discuss the accuracy of the trait placement with the students. If any traits are in the wrong basket, switch the trait’s location and help students understand why the trait fits in the other basket.
- Alternative Activity:
- Show students the Lambs Eat What Mom Eats movie. Ask students to explain what they saw. Did these lambs inherit or acquire their taste preferences?
- Next, hold a taste test using PTC testing strips to see which students can taste a bitter flavor. PTC can either be very bitter or virtually tasteless depending on the taster’s genetic makeup. The ability to taste PTC is a trait that roughly 70% of Americans inherit. Have some hard candy available for those who can taste the bitter PTC to help them get rid of the unpleasant taste.
- Refer the students back to the poll question about ice cream preferences. Ask if they would change their answers after watching the movie and doing the PTC taste test, and allow them to move their sticky notes. If students don’t already conclude that some traits can be both inherited and acquired, help them think about the example of taste preference. The ability to taste PTC is inherited, but the movie Lambs Eat What Mom Eats showed that taste can also be acquired through learning.
Activity 2: Value of Domesticated Animals
- Discuss with students how knowledge of inherited and acquired traits is important to agriculture. Explain the meaning of the term domesticate.
- Ask students to help you make a list of domestic farm animals on the board. Your list could include cattle, horses, sheep, goats, chickens, turkeys, or any other domestic animal commonly found on a farm.
- Next, ask students what purpose each of these animals has. Help students recognize that cattle provide meat and milk, horses historically provided transportation and power, sheep provide meat, wool, and sometimes milk, goats provide meat and milk, chickens provide meat and eggs, and turkeys provide meat.
- Point out that each animal’s ancestors were once wild. Long ago humans began hunting wild animals. Recognizing that these animals could benefit their families by providing food to eat and fiber or leather for clothing and tools, humans began domesticating animals about 10,000 years ago. Over the ensuing years, farmers have repeatedly chosen to breed animals with the best characteristics for their needs. The animals that produced the most milk or the finest wool were kept for breeding, while others might have been sold or traded or used for meat. As a result of this selective breeding, farm animals have changed in behavior and appearance over the years.
- While referencing your list of farm animals on the board from steps one and two, ask your students why more animal species are not raised on farms.
- Allow students to begin thinking about this question, then show the first four minutes of Guns, Germs, and Steel (Part 5). Consider the following questions for class discussion during or after the video clip:
- Why haven’t most animal species been farmed? (they don’t have a practical use to humans, they could be impractical to farm due to space or diet requirements)
- What type of animals are best suited for farming? (large, plant-eating mammals)
- Why aren’t elephants farmed in Asia to accomplish work? (it takes too long for the animal to reach a mature age for working and for reproduction)
- Why is temperament important to a domesticated animal? (safety and ability to get along with humans)
- What inherited traits and acquired traits make an animal suitable for domestication? (a good temperament to get along with humans, a practical use/benefit to humans such as the ability to perform work or to provide food)
Activity 3: Student Presentations
- Assign each student or group of students a domestic farm animal by giving them one of the attached Farm Animal Prompt Cards.
- Provide students the Presentation Rubric. Ask them to create a short presentation about their animal and to include a visual support. This may be a poster or a PowerPoint, or you may choose to have the students use a multimedia tool like Glogster or Padlet.
- Instruct students to include the following items in their presentation:
- Explanation of why this animal is suited to domestication
- Name and pictures of assigned farm animal breed
- Purpose of this breed
- Examples of inherited traits that help this breed fulfill its purpose. Note: The prompt cards give students three examples of traits for each animal. To challenge your students, require them to find additional traits through their own research.
- Have the students present their videos and posters to the class and/or post them to your classroom blog or website.
Concept Elaboration and Evaluation
After conducting these activities, review and summarize the following key concepts:
- Farmers use knowledge of acquired and inherited traits to improve the productivity and ease of managing the plants and animals they raise.
- Acquired traits develop during the lifetime of the organism but are not in the organism’s DNA.
- Inherited traits are genetically determined and passed from parents to offspring.
Suggested Companion Resources
- Selectively Breeding Sheep: Punnet Square Practice (Activity)
- Crop Modification Techniques (Poster, Map, Infographic)
- Garden Genetics: Teaching With Edible Plants (Teacher Reference)
- 23andMe (Website)
- Journey of a Gene (Website)
- Sheep 101 (Website)
State Standards for Utah
Grade 7: Science Standard 4Students will understand that offspring inherit traits that make them more or less suitable to survive in the environment.
Objective 1Compare how sexual and asexual reproduction passes genetic information from parent to offspring. Meeting one or more of the following indicators: a) Distinguish between inherited and acquired traits. b) Contrast the exchange of genetic information in sexual and asexual reproduction (e.g., number of parents, variation of genetic material). c) Cite examples of organisms that reproduce sexually (e.g., rats, mosquitoes, salmon, sunflowers) and those that reproduce asexually (e.g., hydra, planaria, bacteria, fungi, cuttings from house plants). d) Compare inherited structural traits of offspring and their parents.
Objective 2Relate the adaptability of organisms in an environment to their inherited traits and structures. Meeting one or more of the following indicators: a) Predict why certain traits (e.g., structure of teeth, body structure, coloration) are more likely to offer an advantage for survival of an organism. b) Cite examples of traits that provide an advantage for survival in one environment but not other environments. c) Cite examples of changes in genetic traits due to natural and manmade influences (e.g., mimicry in insects, plant hybridization to develop a specific trait, breeding of dairy cows to produce more milk). d) Relate the structure of organs to an organism’s ability to survive in a specific environment (e.g., hollow bird bones allow them to fly in air, hollow structure of hair insulates animals from hot or cold, dense root structure allows plants to grow in compact soil, fish fins aid fish in moving in water).
Agricultural Literacy Outcomes
Science, Technology, Engineering & Math
- Describe the process of development from hunting and gathering to farming (T4.6-8.c)
Plants and Animals for Food, Fiber & Energy
- Describe the differences in plants and animals used for food, clothing, shelter, and fuel before and after European settlement of the United States (T2.6-8.a)
Common Core Connections
Speaking and Listening: Anchor Standards
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.4Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.5Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding of presentations.
Animal Systems Career Pathway
AS.01.01Evaluate the development and implications of animal origin, domestication and distribution on production practices and the environment.
AS.01.02Assess and select animal production methods for use in animal systems based upon their effectiveness and impacts.
MS-LS1 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
MS-LS1-5Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how environmental and genetic factors influence the growth of organisms.