Agricultural Literacy Curriculum Matrix
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What Land Works Best?
3 - 5
Students will identify crops grown in all Utah counties and explain how climate, water, and soil type help to determine where crops are grown. Students will identify where major crops are grown in the United States and learn map reading techniques.
- Where in the US did my food come from? activity sheet, 1 per student
- Utah Agriculture Activity Map
- Utah Agricultural Products Questions activity sheet for display
- Rooftop Farming activity sheet for display
*Note: This lesson plan can easily be simulated for other states by using the USDA’s Census of Agriculture Web Maps, which allows you to view maps of different agricultural statistics across the United States and at the state level, using the "state zoom."
Essential Files (maps, charts, pictures, or documents)
urban: in or relating to cities and densely populated areas; little land area available for agriculture
rural: sparsely populated areas; land area typically used for agriculture
alfalfa: legume crop high in protein that is dried into hay and used to feed livestock, especially dairy cattle
Background Agricultural Connections
Interest Approach – Engagement
- Ask the students to help you make a list on the board of all the types of farms they have seen in Utah. This list can include farms that are nearby as well as those they may have seen on a road trip in other areas of the state. As you list each type of farm, list the food they produce as well. For example if a student lists a dairy farm, specify that it produces milk.
- When your brainstorm is complete, explain to the students that they will be learning about different factors that determine where food is grown. Some of their food is grown close by, and other food is not.
Activity 1: Where does my food come from?
- Give each student a copy of the Where in the United States did my food come from? activity sheet to complete.
- Discuss the regional patterns and the following questions:
- What determines which crops are grown where? (water availability, climate, elevation, soil type; consider sharing a map of US soil types to illustrate the connection between crops and soils)
- Who determines what farmers grow? (consumers who influence demand, other farmers who influence supply, government officials who set quotas and subsidies, and farmers themselves who have preferences and traditions)
- Can you identify where the corn belt and wheat belt are located?
Activity 2: Utah Grown
- Record students’ favorite fruits and vegetables on the board. Ask students to identify which of the fruits and vegetables on the list are grown in Utah by placing a star next to them.
- Share some of the background information with your students. Discuss the types of crops that are grown in Utah and why. List some of the climatic conditions that limit the types of crops that can be grown (availability of water, summer heat/winter cold, length of growing season, etc.). For example, students may have listed bananas in step 1. Bananas require tropical temperatures and much more water than is available in Utah. Conversely, peaches are a fruit that do very well in some parts of Utah.
- Give each student a copy of the Utah Agriculture Activity Map to complete.
- Display the Utah Agricultural Products Questions. Feel free to make up additional questions of your own. Ask students to discuss the answers as a group.
- Conclude this activity by emphasizing the importance of preserving farmland in communities. Use the “Rooftop Farming” activity sheet to underscore this point. See if your class can come up with an interesting and informative caption for the graphic. For example, “Who decides where farmers farm?” or “Watch your next right turn!”
Answers to Utah Agricultural Products Questions:
- In Utah, crops are grown where there is water. Geographically, mountains are a good indicator of where the most water is available. Crops are grown near mountains in the valleys with adequate water, adequate (loam) soils, and where slopes are at a minimum. Orchards are an exception. Many orchards in Utah are planted on the foothills; still, they are near water.
- Hay is drought tolerant. Hay is also needed to feed the state’s large livestock industry.
- Utah has a lot of rangeland. The plants that grow on the range produce good beef, but the forage is not high enough in protein to produce a high volume and quality of milk.
- Answers will vary.
- Answers will vary.
- Crops that are the same: hay, cattle, wheat, etc.; crops that are different: fruit, mink, dairy, onions, etc.; the differences in crops can be explained by the availability of water and other climatic/environmental considerations.
- The Wasatch Front; the Wasatch Front; Utah has a limited area that is good for farming, if that space is taken up by housing, we will have to get our food from other states or even other countries (other answers may be acceptable).
Concept Elaboration and Evaluation
After conducting these activities, review and summarize the following key concepts:
- In Utah and other arid climates, crops are grown where there is adequate water for plant growth through irrigation.
- Farms are located in areas where there is adequate open space for fields and pastures used to grow crops and raise livestock.
- Fertile soil, climate, and weather patterns all impact the ability of farmers to grow crops and raise livestock.
Suggested Companion Resources
- Mountains of Jokes About Rocks, Minerals, and Soil (Book)
- Rocks and Soil (Book)
- Soil! Get the Inside Scoop (Book)
- The Scrambled States of America (Book)
- This Land Is Your Land (Book)
- Atlas of the Historical Geography of the United States (Poster, Map, Infographic)
- Interactive Map Project (Poster, Map, Infographic)
- Utah Agriculture Activity Map (Poster, Map, Infographic)
- Dirt: Secrets in the Soil (DVD) (Multimedia)
- Third-Grader Explains Nature's Role in Providing Clean Water (Multimedia)
- Ag Census Web Maps (Website)
- Into the Outdoors: Farm Science (Website)
- Rocks and Soils (UEN Sci-ber Text for 4th Grade) (Website)
- Soil Center (Website)
- State Fact Sheets (Website)
State Standards for Utah
Grade 4: Science Standard 3Students will understand the basic properties of rocks, the processes involved in the formation of soils, and the needs of plants provided by soil.
Objective 3Observe the basic components of soil and relate the components to plant growth. Meeting one or more of the following indicators: a) Observe and list the components of soil (i.e., minerals, rocks, air, water, living and dead organisms) and distinguish between the living, nonliving, and once living components of soil. b) Diagram or model a soil profile showing topsoil, subsoil, and bedrock, and how the layers differ in composition. c) Relate the components of soils to the growth of plants in soil (e.g., mineral nutrients, water). d) Explain how plants may help control the erosion of soil. e) Research and investigate ways to provide mineral nutrients for plants to grow without soil (e.g., grow plants in wet towels, grow plants in wet gravel, grow plants in water).
Agricultural Literacy Outcomes
Culture, Society, Economy & Geography
- Understand the agricultural history of an individual’s specific community and/or state (T5.3-5.f)
Agriculture and the Environment
- Explain how the interaction of the sun, soil, water, and weather in plant and animal growth impacts agricultural production (T1.3-5.b)
- Recognize the natural resources used in agricultural practices to produce food, feed, clothing, landscaping plants, and fuel (e.g., soil, water, air, plants, animals, and minerals) (T1.3-5.e)
Common Core Connections
Reading: Anchor Standards
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.10Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.
Speaking and Listening: Anchor Standards
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.1Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
Language: Anchor Standards
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.L.3Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.
Writing: Anchor Standards
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.W.2Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
K-4 Geography Standard 15: How physical systems affect human systems.
Objective 3People adapt to the conditions of the physical environment.
K-4 Geography Standard 4: The physical and human characteristics of places.
Objective 1Places are locations having distinctive characteristics that give them meaning and distinguish them from other locations.