Agricultural Literacy Curriculum Matrix
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Three Sisters Garden
3 - 5
60 minutes and on-going observation depending on planting situation.
Students will investigate the "three sisters" crops (corn, beans, and squash) and explore the benefit to planting these crops together. Students will also learn about Native American Legends and plant growth.
- Three Sisters Investigation worksheet
- Three Sisters Legends handout
School Garden Option:
- Hoe, shovel, and/or trowel
- Corn seeds
- Bean seeds
- Squash seeds
Container Garden Option:
- Large pot or container with holes in the bottom
- Corn seeds
- Bean seeds
- Squash or pumpkin seeds – miniature or space-saver variety
Garden in a Glove Option:
- Clear plastic gloves
- Permanent markers
- Cotton balls
- Small paper plates
- Five different types of seeds: Three Sisters crops: corn (sweet corn, popcorn and/or field corn), squash (butternut and acorn), beans
Essential Files (maps, charts, pictures, or documents)
legend: a nonhistorical or unverifiable story handed down by tradition from earlier times and popularly accepted as historical
legume: A legume is a plant in the family Fabaceae or Leguminosae. Legumes are grown agriculturally, primarily for their food grain seed (example beans and lentils, or generally pulse), for livestock forage and silage, and as soil-enhancing green manure. Most legumes have symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in structures called root nodules. Well-known legumes include alfalfa, clover, peas, beans, lentils, soybeans, and peanuts.
Background Agricultural Connections
Interest Approach – Engagement
- Ask your students if they know what a legend is. After students have offered their own ideas and prior knowledge, explain to your students that a legend is a way of passing stories from generation to generation. Legends are very important in many Native American cultures.
- Explain to your class that they will be investigating the legend of the Three Sisters which focuses on the agriculture and food production techniques used by Native Americans. The three sisters refer to three crops that were commonly planted together – corn, beans and squash
Activity 1: Legend of Three Sisters
- Hand out the Three Sisters Investigation worksheet and facilitate a class discussion that allows students to share what they know about corn, beans, and squash. (Examples could include: Corn – tall plant, kernels grow on ears, yellow in color, etc.) Instruct students to list the items in the chart. Feel free to share the information found in the Background Agricultural Connections section of the lesson or have students research the three crops using the internet or other resources to add to their chart.
- Divide your class into groups of 3 or 4. Give each group one of the attached Three Sisters Legends handout. Instruct the students to read through their legend as a group and record characteristics of each sister in their chart on the Three Sisters Investigation worksheet. After the groups have read and discussed in a group, have each group share the characteristics of each sister (plant) with the whole class. They should also decide which crop each sister in their legend represents.
- As a class, discuss how the legends relate to how the three sisters can help each other when planted together. For example: Several of the legends describe the sisters “becoming stronger together” or “three sisters helping and loving each other”. Examples of how the actual crops benefit each other include the corn providing a trellis or pole for the bean to climb. The bean providing nitrogen to the soil to help the corn grow. The squash prevents weeds from growing and deters pests.
Activity 2: Planting a Three Sisters Garden
Choose the gardening option below that best fits the gardening supplies and facilities that you have available to plant a Three Sisters garden.
- Once the ground has thawed in the spring and the danger of frost has passed, select a site that has direct sunlight for at least 8 hours a day.
- Build a small mound of soil about 12 inches high and three feet in diameter. If you have space for multiple mounds, each mound should be 3 to 4 feet apart in all directions.
- Soak four to seven corn seeds overnight and then plant them about 6 inches apart in the center of each mound. (You’ll eventually thin to three or four seedlings). Many Native people honor the tradition of giving thanks to the “Four directions” by orientating corn seeds to the north, south, east and west.
- After about two weeks, when the corn is at least 4 inches high, soak and then plant six pole bean seeds in a circle about 6 inches away from the corn. (You’ll eventually thin to three or four been plants.) At the same time plant four squash or pumpkin seeds next to the mound, about a foot away from the beans, eventually thinning to one.
- Maintain your three sisters garden. As plants grow, gently weed around them. Make sure the soil is moist. If beans aren’t winding their way around the corn, move tendrils to the corn stalk. Be sure to thin the plants once they are several inches tall – see steps 3 and 4 for the ideal number of plants.
- Harvest any fruits that have been produced in the fall and enjoy a three sisters snack!
If outdoor growing space is limited or non-existent, you can create a mini-three sisters garden in a large pot or container. Students will most likely not be able to see the crops grow to maturity, however, they should be able to observe the pole beans twine around the corn and the large leaves form the squash create a “mat”.
- Use a large container (about 18 inches in diameter) that has holes in the bottom and fill it with soil.
- Follow the instructions from the previous planting description but plant 3 corn seeds (thin to one), 2 bean seeds and 1 mini-pumpkin seed. Place the container where it will receive 6-8 hours of sunlight each day.
- To know when to water this container, insert your finger up to your first knuckle in the soil. If the soil is dry, apply water to the soil until water starts to drip out the holes in the bottom on the container. If the soil feels moist do not water.
Garden in a Glove:
If you have limited space indoors or want to germinate the seeds for an outdoor three sisters garden, a garden in a glove is a good alternative to allow students to actually see the seeds sprout!
- Instruct students to write their name on the palm section of a clear plastic glove with a permanent marker. Also label each finger with a different type of seed. (See materials list for Three Sisters seed ideas).
- Dip five cotton balls in water. Give each cotton ball 3 flat squeezes to wring out excess water.
- Place 2 seeds on a small paper plate or paper towel and pick up with a moistened cotton ball.
- Put the cotton ball with the seeds attached into the matching labeled finger in your glove.
- Teacher Tip: You may need to use a pencil to get the cotton ball all the way to the tips of the glove fingers. Also, for large seeds like squash, use only two seeds.
- Repeat steps three and four with the additional cotton balls and seeds.
- Tape the glove to a window, chalkboard, or wall. A clothesline can also be used with clothespins holding the gloves on the line.
- Depending on what seeds are used, germination will take place in 3-5 days. The cotton balls should stay moist through germination. If one or more appear dry you can add a little water with an eyedropper or spray bottle. Germinated seeds can be transplanted in 1-2 weeks. Cut the tip off each finger and pull out the germinated seeds (cotton ball and all), and transplant into a container with soil.
After conducting these activities, review and summarize the following key concepts:
- Agriculture is part of our history. It provides our food supply, clothing, and other necessities.
- Some Native Americans farmed and grew crops for their food. They also understood and practiced farming techniques to preserve their soil and other natural resources.
- Growing food requires nutrients in the soil. Growing a variety of crops helps maintain soil nutrients. Various plants benefit one another.
Explore plant lifecycles – invite students to make observations and document in a journal the emerging plant parts and life cycle changes that occur in your three sisters garden.
Nutrition – have students research the nutritional value of each of the three sisters and the benefits of eating them in combination. You could also challenge students to find “three sisters themed” recipes that they can make at home or as a class
Explore the role and importance of the three sisters in Native cultures through stories, celebrations and art. Search for resources to discover these connections in your school library and on-line sources
Read Issue 6 of Ag Today titled Plants & Animals...Providing Food, Fiber, and Energy! This reader can be printed or accessed digitally. Explore the facts about the renewable and non-renewable resources that make the products and byproducts we need for survival. Learn how agriculture provides energy through biofuels and hydropower, fiber through cotton and wool, and various food products from plants and animals that have been improved through biotechnology and crossbreeding.
Suggested Companion Resources
- Get Popping! (Activity)
- The Great Pumpkin (Activity)
- A Gardener's Alphabet (Book)
- A True Book: Corn (Book)
- Corn (Book)
- Corn in the Story of Agriculture (Book)
- Corn is Maize: The Gift of the Indians (Book)
- Four Seasons of Corn: A Winnebago Tradition (Book)
- From Seed to Pumpkin (Book)
- Kids Container Gardening (Book)
- Life Cycles: Pumpkins (Book)
- Lily's Garden (Book)
- Oliver's Vegetables (Book)
- Pumpkin Jack (Book)
- Pumpkin Pumpkin (Book)
- Step into the Inca World (Book)
- The Life Cycle of a Pumpkin (Book)
- Unearthing Garden Mysteries: Experiments for Kids (Book)
- Three Sisters Seed Packet (Kit)
- Crop Cards (Poster, Map, Infographic)
- All About the Pumpkin Video (Multimedia)
- How It's Made: Corn Tortillas (Multimedia)
- Into the Outdoors: A-maize-ing Corn (Multimedia)
- Ag Today (Booklets & Readers)
- Edible Gardening: Growing Your Own Vegetables, Fruits, and More (Teacher Reference)
- Greening School Grounds: Creating Habitats for Learning (Teacher Reference)
- In The Three Sisters Garden (Teacher Reference)
- Native American Gardening (Teacher Reference)
- School Gardens: A Guide for Gardening and Plant Science (Teacher Reference)
- Kid's Gardening Website (Website)
- Successful Container Gardens (Website)
State Standards for Utah
Grade 3: Science Standard 2Students will understand that organisms depend on living and nonliving things within their environment.
Objective 1Classify living and nonliving things in an environment. Meeting one or more of the following indicators: a) Identify characteristics of living things (i.e., growth, movement, reproduction). b) Identify characteristics of nonliving things. c) Classify living and nonliving things in an environment.
Objective 2Describe the interactions between living and nonliving things in a small environment. Meeting one or more of the following indicators: a) Identify living and nonliving things in a small environment (e.g., terrarium, aquarium, flowerbed) composed of living and nonliving things. b) Predict the effects of changes in the environment (e.g., temperature, light, moisture) on a living organism. c) Observe and record the effect of changes (e.g., temperature, amount of water, light) upon the living organisms and nonliving things in a small–scale environment. d) Compare a small–scale environment to a larger environment (e.g., aquarium to a pond, terrarium to a forest). e) Pose a question about the interaction between living and nonliving things in the environment that could be investigated by observation.
Grade 3: Social Studies Standard 1Students will understand how geography influences community location and development.
Objective 3Analyze ways cultures use, maintain, and preserve the physical environment. Meeting one or more of the following indicators: a) Identify ways people use the physical environment (e.g. agriculture, recreation, energy, industry). b) Compare changes in the availability and use of natural resources over time. d) Compare perspectives of various communities toward the natural environment. e) Make inferences about the positive and negative impacts of human-caused change to the physical environment.
Grade 3: Social Studies Standard 2Students will understand cultural factors that shape a community.
Objective 1Evaluate key factors that determine how a community develops. Meeting one or more of the following indicators: a) Identify the elements of culture (e.g. language, religion, customs, artistic expression, systems of exchange). b) Describe how stories, folktales, music and artistic creations serve as expressions of culture. c) Compare elements of the local community with communities from different parts of the world (e.g. industry, economic specialization). d) Identify and explain the interrelationship of the environment (e.g. location, natural resources, climate) and community development (e.g. food, shelter,clothing, industries,markets,recreation, artistic creations). f) Explain changes within communities caused by human inventions (e.g. steel plow, internal combustion engine, television, computer).
Objective 2Explain how selected indigenous cultures of the Americas have changed over time. Meeting one or more of the following indicators: a) Describe and compare early indigenous peoples of the Americas (e.g. Eastern Woodlands, Plains, Great Basin, Southwestern, Artic, Incan, Aztec, Mayan). b) Analyze how these cultures changed with the arrival of people from Europe, and how the cultures of the Europeans changed. c) Identify how indigenous people maintain cultural traditions today.
Agricultural Literacy Outcomes
Culture, Society, Economy & Geography
- Understand the agricultural history of an individual’s specific community and/or state (T5.3-5.f)
Common Core Connections
Reading: Anchor Standards
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.2Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.9Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.
Speaking and Listening: Anchor Standards
CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.1Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
K-4 History Standard 6A: Folklore and other cultural contributions from various regions of the United States and how they help to form a national heritage.
Objective 1Describe regional folk heroes, stories, or songs that have contributed to the development of the cultural history of the U.S.
NCSS 3: People, Places, and Environments
Objective 1The theme of people, places, and environments involves the study of location, place, and the interactions of people with their surroundings.
5-LS1: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
5-LS1-1Support an argument that plants get the materials they need for growth chiefly from air and water.